Translation Tuesday: Catenae Graecorum 06

ἸΩΆΝΝΟΥ ΧΡΥΣΟΣΤΌΜΟΥ. Βαβαὶ, ὅσον τὸ ἐγκώμιον, οἱ μαθηταὶ ἐξαίφνης ἐγένοντο διδάσκαλοι· οὐκ ἤκουσαν μόνον τῶν λόγων, καὶ πρὸς αὐτὴν ἄφθασαν τὴν κορυφὴν τῷ Παύλῳ, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲν τοῦτο ἐστιν· ὅρα γὰρ, πῶς αὐτοὺς ἐνάγει λέγων, “καὶ τοῦ Κυρίου δεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον, ἐν θλίψει πολλῇ μετὰ χαρᾶς Πνεύματος Ἁγίου,” καὶ ἔνεστι τοῦτο ἀπὸ τῶν Πραξέων τῶν Ἀποστολικῶν μαθεῖν πῶς ἐπήγειραν διωγμὸν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς, καὶ πάντας, φησὶ, τοὺς πολιτάρχας ἐτάραξαν, καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἀνεπτέρωσαν κατ᾽ αὐτῶν. Καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν εἰπεῖν, ὅτι ἐθλίβητε μὲν, καὶ ἐπιστεύσατε, ἀλγοῦντες δὲ ἀλλὰ κὰι χαίροντες, ὅτερ καὶ οἱ Ἀπόστολοι ἐποίουν· “χαίροντες ὅτι κατηξιώθησαν ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὄνόματος ἀτιμασθῆναι.” Πῶς δὲ τοῦ Κυρίου μιμηταὶ ἐγένοντο; ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς πολλὰ παθήματα ὑπέμεινεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἔχαιρεν· ἑκὼν γὰρ ἐπὶ τοῦτο ἤρχετο, δι᾽ ἡμᾶς ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσε· “μετὰ χαρᾶς” φησὶ, “Πνεύματος Ἁγίου·” ἡ θλίψις ἐν τοῖς σωματικοῖς, καὶ ἡ χαρὰ ἐν τοῖς πνευματικοῖς· πῶς; ὅτι τὰ μὲν γενόμενα λυπηρὰ, τὰ δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν τικτόμενα οὐκέτι· οὐ γὰρ ἀφίησι τὸ Πνεῦμα· ἔθλιψαν ὑμᾶς, φησὶν, ἐδίωξαν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἀφῆκεν ὑμᾶς τὸ Πνεῦμα οὐδὲ ἐν ἐκείνοις. Καλῶς δὲ προσέθηκε τὸ “Πνεύματος Ἁγίου,” οὐ γὰρ ἦν ἑτέρως ἐνταῦθα λυπουμένοις χαίρειν ὑπὲρ τῶν οὐ φαινομένων, εἰ μὴ τὰ ὑπὸ Πνεύματος γενόμενα θαύματα βεβαίαν αὐτοῖς παρεῖχε τῶν μελλόντων τὴν πίστιν. “ὥστε γενέσθαι ὑμᾶς τύπους πᾶσι τοῖς πιστεύουσιν ἐν τῇ Μακεδονίᾳ καὶ ἐν τῇ Ἀχαΐᾳ·” καὶ μὴν ἐν ὑστέρῳ ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτούς· ἀλλ᾽ οὕτως ἐλάμψατε, φησὶν, ὡς τῶν προλαβόντων διδάσκαλοι.

JOHN CHRYSOSTOM. Bless me, what great praise. The disciples suddenly became the teachers. They did not only hear of the words, they also arrived at the same place as Paul. But this is nothing; for see how he exalts them saying, “And receiving the word of the Lord, in much affliction with the joy of the Holy Spirit.” And this we are able to learn from the Acts of the Apostles, how they raised persecution upon them, and how, he says, they rose up all the rulers, and how they instigated the city against them. And it is not enough to say that you were inflicted, and believed, and that though you were grieving, you were even rejoicing, which the apostles also do, “rejoicing that they were counted worthy to be dishonored for the name.” And how did they become imitators of the Lord? Because the Lord himself endured many sufferings, but he rejoiced. For he came upon this willingly. He emptied himself out for us. “With the joy,” he says, “of the Holy Spirit.” The affliction is in the bodily things, and the joy is in the spiritual things. How? Because the things which happened to them were grievous, but the things which were born from them were not. For the Spirit did not forsake you. “They afflicted you,” he says, “they persecuted you, but the Spirit did not forsake you even in those things.” And it is good that he added the “Holy Spirit,”  οὐ γὰρ ἦν ἑτέρως ἐνταῦθα λυπουμένοις χαίρειν ὑπὲρ τῶν οὐ φαινομένων, εἰ μὴ τὰ ὑπὸ Πνεύματος γενόμενα θαύματα βεβαίαν αὐτοῖς παρεῖχε τῶν μελλόντων τὴν πίστιν. “So that you became examples to all who believe in Macedonia and in Achaia.” And yet, he came to them at a later time, “but you shined brightly,” he says, “so as to become teachers of those who received the word before you.”

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Humorous Parsing Error

While translating and editing through the Apostolic Fathers General Reader for 1 Clement, I noticed something odd for 1 Clement 56:7. The context for the passage is the fact that God disciplines and instructs those he loves, and then binds up their wounds and heals them. In 56:7, we find this statement:

ἔπαισεν, καὶ αἱ χεῖρες αὐτοῦ ἰάσαντο.

He [God]  ____, and his hands heal.

The parsing information provided for the word ἔπαισεν was ἔπαισεν from παίζω aor act indic 3s. Accordingly, I looked up the word παίζω in my trusty copy of BDAG to find the glosses to play, amuse oneself, play with someone.

Contextually, this gloss creates a number of theological issues. God amuses himself by disciplining his people only to heal them thereafter? No. Something was amiss.

So, I thought, “Maybe this word developed a different nuance outside the scope of BDAG.” I checked Lampe’s Patristic Lexicon to find that it was not included. Grasping at my copy of Liddell and Scott, I hoped to find some recourse there. But the glosses only got worse:

  1. play like a child, sport
    1. dance
    2. play on a musical instrument
    3. play amorously
    4. hunt, pursue game
  2. jest, sport
    1. play with, make sport of
    2. played upon or coined for the joke’s sake

At this point, I was a bit beside myself. After all, the English translation of the passage read, “he has wounded, and his hands have healed.” How could the translator provide such a translation with absolutely no support in the lexicons?

Well, two final thoughts occurred to me: (1) this is likely a quotation from the LXX as many other verses in this chapter have been, and (2) maybe there is some interference from the source language (Hebrew).

As I expected, 1 Clement 56:7 is a quotation from the LXX. It is from Job 5:18. But, much to my surprise, the parsing information provided for the verb ἔπαισεν in Job 5:18 in Accordance was ἔπαισεν from παίω aor act indic 3s, strike, wound.

Though the verbs are distinct in their lexical forms παίζω (to play) v. παίω (to strike), they become the same in the aorist. The ε is added for the aorist and the ζ becomes σ for παίζω while the σ is added before the person number suffix in παίω, creating ἔπαισεν in both instances.

Here is a humorously disturbing example of why, though Bible software is a great help for students, teachers, and scholars alike, we must all be wary of accepting the data provided therein as infallible.

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Translation Tuesday: Catenae Graecorum 05

ΣΕΥΗΡΙΑΝΟΥ. Καὶ ἡ μὲν πίστις ἐγείρει πρὸς καμάτους, ἡ δὲ ἀγάπη ἐπιμένειν ποιεῖ τοῖς πόνοις. “ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν,” ἵνα εἴπῃ ὅτι ἀρέσκοντες τῷ Θεῷ ταῦτα ποιεῖτε, ὥστε φανῆναι Θεοῦ ἀρέσκειαν τὴν ἐπὶ τὸν Χριστὸν πίστιν καὶ τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν διάθεσιν. Καὶ τῆς ὑπομονῆς, φησίν. Οὐ γὰρ πρὸς ἕνα χρόνον ὁ διωγμὸς ἐκεῖνος, ἀλλὰ διὰ παντός. Ταῦτα τοίνυν, φησὶ, πάντα ἀπὸ πίστεως ποιεῖτε καὶ ἐλπίδος. Ὥστε οὐ τὴν ἀνδρείαν αὐτῶν μόνον ἐδήλου τὰ γινόμενα, ἀλλ᾽ὅτι καὶ μετὰ πληροφορίας ἐπίστευον τοῖς ἀποκειμένοις ἐπάθλοις· διὰ γὰρ τοῦτο συνεχώρει ὁ Θεὸς εὐθέως γίνεσθαι διωγμοὺς, ἵνα μή τις εἴπῃ ὅτι ἁπλῶς καὶ κολακείᾳ τὸ κήρυγμα συνίστατο, καὶ ἵνα τὸ θερμὸν αὐτῶν δειχθῇ, καὶ ὅτι οὐ πεισμονὴ ἀνθρωπίνη, ἀλλὰ Θεοῦ δύναμις ἦν, ἡ τὰς τῶν πιστευόντων ψυχὰς πείθουσα, ὥστε καὶ πρὸς θανάτους μυρίους παρεσκευάσθαι· ὅπερ οὐκ ἂν ἦν, εἰ μὴ εὐθέως κατὰ β´θος τὸ κήρυγμα πεπήγει, καὶ ἕστηκεν ἀκλινές.

Εἰδότες, ἀδελφοὶ ἠγαπημένοι ὑπὸ Θεοῦ, τὴν ἐκλογὴν ὑμῶν, ὅτι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐγενήθη εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐν λόγῳ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν δυνάμει, καὶ Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ, καὶ ἐν πληροφορίᾳ πολλῇ, καθὼς οἴδατε οἴδατε οἷοι ἐγενήθημεν ἐν ὑμῖν δι᾽ ὑμᾶς.

Ἐνταῦθα καὶ τῶν αὐτοῦ κατορθωμάτω ἅπτεται, ἀλλ᾽ἐπεσκιασμένως, βούλεται γὰρ πρότερον τοῖς ἐκείνων ἐγκωμίοις ὑπεξελθεῖν· τοῦτο δὲ λέγει, ἤδειν μὲν ὅτι μεγάλων ἦτε ἀνδρῶν, ὅτι ἐκλεκτῶν· διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡμεῖς πάντα ὑπομένομεν δι᾽ ὑμᾶς· τὸ γὰρ “οἷον ἐγενήθημεν ἐν ὑμῖν” τοῦτό ἐστι δηλοῦντος, ὅτι μετὰ πολλῆς προθυμίας ἕτοιμοι τὰς ψυχὰς ἐκδοῦναι δι᾽ ὑμᾶς· καὶ τούτου δὲ οὐχ ἡμῖν χάρις, ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἐκλεκτοὶ ἦτε, ὅτι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐγενήθη εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐν λόγῳ, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν δυνάμει, φησίν· οὐκ εἴπομεν, φησὶ, μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ θαύματα ἐπεδειξάμεθα, οὐδὲ ἐποιήσαμεν μὲν σημεῖα, οὐχ ὑπέστημεν δὲ πειρασμοὺς, ἀλλὰ διὰ πάντων ἤλθομεν, βεβαιοῦντες ὑμᾶς εἰς τὰ αὐτὰ κατορθώματα· “καὶ ὑμεῖς” φησὶ, “μιμηταὶ ἡμῶν ἐγενήθητε, καὶ τοῦ Κυρίου, δεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον ἐν θλίψει πολλῇ μετὰ χαρᾶς Πνεύματος Ἁγίου.”

 

SEVERIAN. While faith raises up toils, love persists in hard work. “Before our God and Father,” so that he might say you did these pleasing things for God, so your faith in Christ and disposition to him might be revealed as obedience to God. And he writes about “of steadfastness.” For that persecution, which the Thessalonians have experience, is not for a time but will endure always. Then he says these things, “you do all things form faith and hope.” Therefore these things made clear not only their courage but also that they were believing with confidence in the prices set aside. For, because of this, God immediately allowed persecution to take place, so that no one would be able to say that the message arose simply and with flattery, and so that their passion might be revealed and that it was not from human persuasion, but it was from the power of God, which persuades the souls of those who believe, so that they might be prepared for a thousand deaths. This might not be the case if the preaching had not been immediately fixed according to depth and established as unswerving.

Knowing, brothers beloved by God, that God has chosen you because our gospel was not among you in word only, but also with power, and with the Holy Spirit and with full confidence, just as you know how we were among you for your own benefit.

            Here he touches on his own uprightness, but only subtly, for first he desires to send forth their praises. And he says this, that I know you are great men because you are chosen. Therefore, we endure all these things for you. For this quote “what sort of people we became among you” is Paul makes it known that he, Silas, and Timothy were, with great eagerness, prepared to give up their lives on behalf of the Thessalonians. And concerning this he does not say grace to us, but to you, because you are chosen, “because the gospel was not among you in word, but with power,” he says. We do not say, he says, “only, but also we performed wonders, nor we did signs, nor did we submit ourselves to trials, but we came in every manner encouraging you in the same virtuous things. ” “And you,” he says, “became imitators of us, and of the Lord, by receiving the word in much affliction with the joy of the Holy Spirit.”

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QOTD: 1 Clement on Salvation

πάντες οὖν ἐδοξάσθησαν καὶ ἐμεγαλύνθησαν οὐ δι᾿ αὐτῶν ἢ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῶν ἢ τῆς δικαιοπραγίας ἧς κατειργάσαντο, ἀλλὰ διὰ τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ.

 καὶ ἡμεῖς οὖν, διὰ θελήματος αὐτοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ κληθέντες, οὐ δι᾿ ἑαυτῶν δικαιούμεθα οὐδὲ διὰ τῆς ἡμετέρας σοφίας ἢ συνέσεως ἢ εὐσεβείας ἢ ἔργων ὧν κατειργασάμεθα ἐν ὁσιότητι καρδίας, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς πίστεως, δι᾿ ἧς πάντας τοὺς ἀπ᾿ αἰῶνος ὁ παντοκράτωρ θεὸς ἐδικαίωσεν· ᾧ ἔστω ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. ἀμήν.

Therefore, all [the tribes of Israel] were glorified and made great, not through themselves, or their words works, or their righteous actions which they accomplished, but through His will.

Therefore, we also through his will have been called in Christ Jesus, not through ourselves are we justified, nor through our own wisdom, or understanding, or piety, or works which we have done in devoutness of heart, but through faith, through which Almighty God has justified all everyone from the beginning, to whom be glory the glory forever. Amen.

-1 Clement 32:3–4

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QOTD: 1 Clement on the Resurrection

ἡμέρα καὶ νὺξ ἀνάστασιν ἡμῖν δηλοῦσιν· κοιμᾶται ἡ νύξ, ἀνίσταται ἡ ἡμέρα· ἡ ἡμέρα ἄπεισιν, νὺξ ἐπέρχεται.

Night and day reveal to us the resurrection. The night sleeps; the day arises. The day goes away; night comes.

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Rob Plummer’s Daily Dose of Greek

I just saw that Dr. Rob Plummer over at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary has a site called “Daily Dose of Greek.” The site it designed to help teach students NT Greek from scratch or to keep up your Greek as Dr. Plummer reads and translates through a passage in under 2 minutes each day. He describes the site accordingly:

The site has three main functions:

  1. You can learn Greek “from scratch” or review fundamentals with the twenty-five video lectures posted in the “Learn Greek” section. Lectures are keyed to D. A. Black’s Learn to Read New Testament Greek, 3rd ed.
  2. The 2-minute “Daily Dose” video, to which students can subscribe via email. Five days per week, subscribers will be sent a link to 2-minute video in which I talk through a single Greek verse.(Notice: Our “Daily Dose” emails will officially begin October 1st. Please feel free to sign-up now. Then, on October 1st, you will begin to receive your “Daily Dose of Greek!”).
  3. Under the “Resources” section of the webpage, you will find additional links and resources to aid in learning and using Greek.

I encourage you to go over, take a look, sign up for the daily reminders to keep your Greek fresh, and enjoy!

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Apostolic Fathers Greek Reader

If you are interested in an introduction to the Greek text of the Apostolic Fathers, it looks like GlossHouse will be publishing Greek Readers for the works within the corpus. My contributions to the project will be published in the collection of Ignatius’ letters (Smyraeans) and 1 Clement. The publication of the series came as a bit of a surprise to me. Initially, the project architects started without aims at publication, but, shortly thereafter, things changed! You can read all about the project and the methodology we are using here. Also, make sure to click on the picture to see what is going on over a GlossaHouse.

Thanks again to Brian Renshaw and Shawn Wilhite for the opportunity to participate in this exciting project.

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