Greek Psalms Observations: Psalm 9:1–10

10513536_10152192424111196_4495896224681766862_nSince this blog has experienced a bit of a lull as of late, I thought I would start posting some of my observations on the Greek text of the Psalms. These posts will be brief and largely will concentrate on the differences between the MT and LXX of the Psalms. I will use the following texts: BHS and the ESV for translation and the Göttingen LXX and the NETS translation, unless there’s a reason for me to make a modification.

For today’s reading, I read 9:1–10, and I came away with three brief observations:

1) Psalm 9:4

בְּשׁוּב־אוֹיְבַ֥י אָח֑וֹר

ἐν τῷ ἀποστραφῆναι τὸν ἐχθρόν μου εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω

When my enemies turn back
When my enemies are turned back

The translator transforms the active (בְּשׁוּב־אוֹיְבַ֥י [when my enemies turn]) into the passive construction ἐν τῷ ἀποστραφῆναι τὸν ἐχθρόν μου (when my enemy is turned back). It seems as if the translator anticipates the next clause where God is the one that causes the turning back (they shall grow weak and shall perish from before you).

2) Psalm 9:7

הָֽאוֹיֵ֨ב ׀ תַּ֥מּוּ חֳרָב֗וֹת לָ֫נֶ֥צַח

τοῦ ἐχθροῦ ἐξέλιπον αἱ ῥομφαῖαι εἰς τέλος

The enemy came to an end in everlasting ruins;
The swords of the enemy failed completely

The “addition” of αἱ ῥομφαῖαι can be explained by an unpointed text (חֲרָבוֹת is plural for swords and the MT has חֳרָב֗וֹת).

3) Psalms 9:10

וִ֘יהִ֤י יְהוָ֣ה מִשְׂגָּ֣ב לַדָּ֑ךְ מִ֝שְׂגָּ֗ב לְעִתּ֥וֹת בַּצָּרָֽה׃

καὶ ἐγένετο κύριος καταφυγὴ τῷ πένητι, βοηθὸς ἐν εὐκαιρίαις ἐν θλίψει·

The LORD is a stronghold for the oppressed, a stronghold in times of trouble (ESV).

And the Lord became a refuge for the needy, a helper at opportune times in affliction (NETS).

This is the only time in the LXX מִ֝שְׂגָּ֗ב (stronghold) is translated with βοηθὸς (helper). It would seem as if the translator is avoiding repetition in favor variation between the lines.

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Greek Psalms in a Year: Reading Group

10513536_10152192424111196_4495896224681766862_nIt’s the New Year, which means a host of reading plans and reading groups are being formed. For those interested, there’s a Greek Psalms in a Year reading group. The group is based upon last year’s Greek Isaiah in a Year reading group. Some great work has already been done to provide you with a schedule for the readings as well as vocabulary files. I encourage you to check it out here, request an invite, and join us this year.

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Leavenworth: More Pics

For those who might be interested, here are some more shots from our celebration in Leavenworth:

IMG_2241 IMG_2242 IMG_2243 IMG_2247 IMG_2250 IMG_2256 IMG_2257 IMG_2259 IMG_2269 IMG_2281

(The above shot is of a life size nutcracker in the nutcracker museum [yes, an entire museum dedicated to nutcrackers])


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Book Review: Galatians and Christian Theology

Mark W. Elliott, Scott J. Hafemann, N.T. Wright, and John Frederick, eds. Galatians and Christian Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014, 400 pp.; Kindle edition $22.99. Amazon Kindle Version Here.

jpegGalatians and Christian Theology is the published volume of the plenary speakers among others from the St Andrews Galatians and Christian Theology Conference hosted in 2012. This is the third volume produced from similar conferences: The first being Hebrews and Christian Theology published in 2009 and the second Genesis and Christian Theology published in 2012. (The 2003 conference on John and Christian Theology did not result in a publication.)

The volume is composed of twenty-three essays, organized around three themes. The first theme, as one might expect, is “Justification.” Within this section of the volume are ten essays by heavy hitters such as N.T. Wright, Mark Elliott, Scott Hafemann, among others. The second section, comprised of seven essays, is organized around the topic, “Gospel.” Finally, the third section of the book, containing six essays, concentrates on “Ethics.”

The editors note that the conference was not organized around these three themes. Rather, the natural interactions that took place among the plenary speakers, as well as the essays that were selected for inclusion within the volume, coalesced in a manner that was not altogether characteristic of previous conferences. It seemed, to the editors, as if the geographical and inter-disciplinary divide that separated the scholars was bridged, providing ample opportunities for fruitful engagement. Accordingly, the essays seemed to fall naturally into the system of categorization imposed upon the volume by the editors and by Jim Kenney of Baker Academic.

The compositional arrangement of the essays in this volume is noticeable. That is to say, it is clear that the editors and those at Baker Academic strove to maintain as much continuity between essays as was feasible. N.T. Wright, in his contribution, puts forth the thesis that Paul’s use of the term Χριστός (Christ) maintains explicit reference to Jesus’ role as Messiah. As such, the essay includes statistics regarding Paul’s normal usage of the term and its saturation within Galatians. Furthermore, the expectations of a Messiah and the relationship of those themes to Galatians are assessed. The subsequent essay written by Matthew V. Novenson entitled “Paul’s Former Occupation in Ioudaismos” analyzes the recent trend in understanding the term Ioudaismos not as the Jewish religion, but as derived from ἰουδαΐζω (to compel Gentiles to judaize). Thus, not only have these essays been organized in the section “Justification,” but they also have been placed next to one another as they both engage in lexical analysis as a means of making their theological argument.

This organizing tendency is apparent throughout the volume. Timothy Wengert’s essay “Martin Luther on Galatians 3:6–14″ addresses not only Luther’s awareness of a view akin to NPP, but his intentional disagreement with and departure from such a view. Haefmann’s essay “Yaein” takes Wengert’s assessment of Luther, affirming some parts that should still be accepted as valid today and discarding others that, in his view, have been discounted in light of the findings of modern research.

It is clear from these and many other instances of thematic continuities (e.g. Darren O. Sumner’s “Karl Barth and ‘The Fullness of Time’ ” and Scott R. Swain’s ” ‘Heirs through God’ “) that the editors have admirably and artfully woven the conference essays into a volume that possesses great continuity despite the fact that the conference was not intentionally organized with that aim.

Nevertheless, the categories, as I believe the editors would admit, are both artificial and, to a certain extent, misleading. The underlying hermeneutical grids through which a large portion of the essayists wrote concerned themselves either with participationistic or apocalyptic readings of Galatians. Those who read the book in light of a participationist hermeneutic, for example, sought to wed the themes of justification and ethics in a manner that they saw lacking in traditional readings of the book. As such, the essays within the category of “Justification” or “Ethics” could have just as easily been placed within “Ethics” or “Justification” respectively. Such authors may very well view this as a commendation of their work. After all, it is their contention that Paul’s view of justification cannot be separated from his expectation that Christians will live in a manner that belies the reality that they are “in Christ.”

One other minor note to mention is the fact that the editors’ commendable work providing as much continuity between the essays as possible created a bit of difficulty for the reader. At times, I did not know when the essay I was reading would carry on the previous discussion, a similar discussion, or begin an entirely new but related line of inquiry. This is less a criticism of the work as a whole, and more of a warning to other readers to not be so easily lulled into the expectation that Galatians and Christian Theology is one seamless work.

In sum, this volume is a fantastic read for those both interested in exploring the current issues surrounding Galatians as well as scholars already embroiled in the discussion. Though, as the editors write, “There were occasional moments where the theological atmosphere felt too much for the average exegete, and where perhaps theologians felt overly constrained by the need to stay close to the six chapters of Galatians,” I encourage readers of a theological, exegetical, or ethical bent to pick this volume up and benefit from a large swatch of essays that will surely challenge and refine their understanding of Galatians.

Note: Thanks to Baker Academic for providing a review copy of this book. This did not influence my thoughts or opinions of the work.

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A “Bavarian” Celebration

I’m a bit late in posting this update, but I thought it was about time I let everyone know that I have finished and submitted my thesis. It made its way through my first reader, and is now awaiting the edits from my second. (After that it goes to the third, I defend, make any outstanding corrections, submit to the library, and walk the stage to graduate this coming May.)

“How’s the beard looking,” you ask?



I’ve decided to keep it until, at the very least, I’ve received corrections from all three readers. Then I might consider…trimming it. What can I say? I kinda like it.

Anyways, as a bit of a celebration, Mary Beth planned a family vacation in Leavenworth. Leavenworth is a Bavarian styled town in Washington state that is a great vacation spot. Here are a few pics I’ve taken:


It reminds me of a visit I took to Rothenburg back in 2008. Here’s a pic from that visit:


Thanks for stopping by. I think I should get back to relaxing mit meiner Frau und Kind.

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QOTD: Barclay

The rubric that governs the ethos of this [the Christian/Galatian] community is a formula of reciprocity as creative as it is paradoxical. The Galatian freedom will not become an opportunity for “the flesh” inasmuch as they are “slaves to one another through love” (διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης δουλεύετε ἀλλήλοις [5:13]). This is a remarkable expression since it adjusts an inherently hierarchical relationship (slavery) not by canceling it, in the name of “equality,” but by making it reciprocal, a hierarchy that turns both ways. The simple but powerful word ἀλλήλοις turns a one-way relationship of power and superiority into a mutual relationship of reciprocal deference, where each seeks to promote the interests of the other.

Barclay in Galatians in Christian Theology

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What has been going on with me these days. Well, to start off, I’ve finished the writing of my thesis. Here’s me, my beard in all its glory, and a look at how long the thesis is (fyi I printed on both sides, so in reality, it is twice this length):


Also, this came in today.


I flipped straight to 1 Thess 1:6 to see if Weimar [edit: Weima] conceives of the καί clause as a part of the previous ὅτι clause in 1 Thess 1:5. While he sees it as definitely connected, he also notes that it is a move closer towards an independent clause (97).

Also, this is in the mail:


I’ll be reading it for a review with Religious Studies Review.

Oh, and finally, I knocked out my editing responsibilities for three essays this morning (as well as the editing of the first chapter of my thesis). Things are moving along. Pray for me as I try to complete all these tasks.

[[Edit: I almost forgot to include that I have two more book reviews planned for the blog. One is a final thoughts post on Decker’s Grammar. The other in on this volume:


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